AEPS Annotated Bibliography

Bailey, E., & Bricker, D. (1986). A psychometric study of a criterion-referenced assessment instrument designed for infants and young children. Journal of the Division of Early Childhood, 10(2), 124-134.

Interobserver agreement and temporal stability were used to test reliability of the Evaluation and Programming System For Infants and Young Children –Assessment Level I: Developmentally 1 Month to 3 Years (EPS-I). The scores from the EPS-I, standardized tests, and parent ratings of children's skills and abilities were also used as a measure of test reliability. The usefulness of the EPS-I in the creation of education programs for children with disabilities was examined. The results of this study communicated that scoring is relatively consistent and stable across EPS-I domains, although some variability exists when scoring children that have disabilities. It was found that parent rating scores and EPS-I performance scores are compatible while the study further suggests that the EPS-I provides appropriate and practical information for creating educational programming for young children with disabilities.

Bricker, D., Bailey, E., & Slentz, K. (1990). Reliability, validity, and utility of the Evaluation and Programming System: For Infants and Young Children (EPS-I). Journal of Early Intervention, 14(2), 147-160.

The purpose of this study was to examine certain psychometric properties (interobserver and test-retest reliability, congruent validity and internal consistency) and usefulness of the Evaluation and Programming System: For Infants and Young Children –Assessment Level I: Developmentally 1 Month to 3 Years (ESP-I). Children ranging in ages from 2 months to 6 years of age were participants in the study across 4 states. Results indicated that the EPS-I is both valid and reliable for interventions for young children with disabilities.

Bricker, D., Clifford, J., Yovanoff, P., Pretti-Frontczak, K., Waddell, M., Allen, D., & Hoselton, R. (2008). Eligibility determination using a curriculum-based assessment: A further examination. Journal of Early Intervention, 31(1), 3-21.

This study examined the usefulness of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS) in determining eligibility for IDEA services for young children. A typically developing sample of young children was assessed using the AEPS and a Rasch one-parameter dichotomous measurement model to determine cutoff scores for each of the measure's six developmental areas. Cutoff scores were calculated for 3-month intervals for the Birth to Three Year Level and 6-month intervals for the Three to Six Year Level of the AEPS. Scores were compared with a group of children previously determined eligible for services. The study results indicated that the cutoff scores were able to identify accurately most children eligibility for services; however, the cutoff scores did tend to over-identify non-eligible children as eligible.

Bricker, D., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. (1997). A Study of Psychometric Properties of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming Test for Three to Six Years. Unpublished report, University of Oregon, Center on Human Development, Early Intervention Program.

This study addresses the treatment validity of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS). This assessment and evaluation measure explores the ideology that the AEPS could potentially facilitate the development of best practices in early childhood intervention. Five studies were conducted to examine the effects of teacher training on the AEPS. The emphasis of this research was focused on determining the impact of teacher training on the quality of children's IEP/IFSP goals. The frequency in which teachers embedded goals throughout daily activities was examined while exploring if the frequency of goal embedding impacted children's success on their targeted goals and objectives.

Bricker, D., Yovanoff, P., Capt, B., & Allen, D. (2003). Use of a curriculum-based measure to corroborate eligibility decisions. Journal of Early Intervention, 26(1), 20-30.

This study explored a curriculum-based measure, the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS), and the usefulness of the measure in determining eligibility for special education services for young children. A typically developing sample of young children was assessed using the AEPS and a Rasch one-parameter dichotomous measurement model to determine cutoff scores for 6-month intervals. Scores were compared with a group of children previously determined eligible for services. The study results indicated that the cutoff scores were able to accurately identify most eligible children but tended to over-identify ineligible children.

Cripe, J.W. (1990). Evaluating the effectiveness of training procedures in a linked system approach to individual family service plan developments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene.

This study examined the effectiveness of three different treatment procedures for early intervention professionals using the EPS Linked Approach for Individualized Family Service Planning. The first group completed the IFSP using the EPS assessment and written instructions. The second group received one-half day training and family guided assessment and intervention. The third group received two days of training in child and family assessment, intervention, and evaluation methods. IFSP’s written by each group were compared to the child’s IFSP from the previous year and outcome statements were measured for quality. The study showed that all groups improved with training. The group completing the two day training showed the greatest progress in quality ratings. Interventionists and families rated the EPS family assessment measure and interview process acceptable and would recommend its use in each of their programs.

Gao, X. (2008). Validity of an authentic assessment in order to report young children's accountability data on early language, literacy and pre-math areas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky

The study examined the concurrent validity and social validity of the Assessment, Evaluation and Programming System 2 nd Edition (AEPS ® ) for young children three to six years of age. Correlational analysis was used to test concurrent validity of the AEPS ® . The scores from the AEPS ® cognitive strand and social-communication strand were compared to the scores from the BDI-2 cognitive domain and communication domain. Also, the social validity of the AEPS ® was examined by using the focus group approach. The results of this study communicated that the AEPS ® is concurrently valid in measuring young children's cognitive and communication abilities, and it is perceived as a useful and preferable assessment tool for both teachers and parents.

Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. (in press). Preparing Head Start personnel to use a curriculum based assessment: A model for implementation in the age of accountability. Journal of Early Intervention (Innovative Practices).

This project evaluated the effectiveness of a systematic training practice to enhance the reliability and fidelity of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS). Three Head Start Programs participated in the program, which incorporated the development of assessment activity protocols, training to Head Start teachers, weekly on-site technical assistance, and reliability sessions. This project verified that a curriculum-based measurement, such as the AEPS, is able to provide reliable information for accountability purposes.

Hamilton, D. (1995). The Utility of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System in the Development of Quality IEP Goals and Objectives for Young Children, Birth to Three, with Visual Impairments. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

This study examined the efficacy of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS) in comparison to the Oregon Project for Visually Impaired and Blind Preschool Children in terms of which assessment creates quality educational goals and objectives. For this study, forty teachers served as subjects. The teachers were provided with information about two children with visual impairments which included the AEPS and Oregon Project information, videotapes, and teacher and parental information about the children's skills, interests, medical condition, and family interests. The forty teachers were asked to write one goal with two corresponding objectives for both the communication and gross motor domains. The IEP Goals and Objectives Rating Instrument was used to determine that higher quality goals and objectives were written based on AEPS information in contrast to the Oregon Project information. This finding was especially heightened in the communication domain; therefore communicating the significance of the AEPS system for writing quality goals and objectives for young nonverbal children with visual impairments.

Hsia, T. (1993). Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System for Three to Six Years: AEPS Test. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

The purpose of this study was to explore psychometric properties of the criterion-referenced Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS) for young children three to six years of age. Eighty-two children with and without developmental delays were participants in this study. Children were videotaped as they partook in an array of assessment activities. Coders then used the videotape to assess children's performance using the AEPS test. It was found that the test is sensitive to performance differences between varying ages and that the test delineates performance differences between children that are typically developing among children with developmental delays. This study also explored interrater reliability and found that the AEPS test has satisfactory consistency at both domain and total test levels.

Kim, Y. (1997). Activity-Based Assessment: A Functional Approach to Determining Eligibility of Young Children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

This study examined the differences between the Activity-Based Assessment ( ABA ) and the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) in regards to assessing eligibility for young children with developmental disabilities. The first study randomly assigned thirty parents of four-year-old children with communication delays. Upon completion of the ABA and BDI assessments, parents were asked to complete the Checklist of Test Functionality (CTF) to determine the extent to which the tests measured functional skills. Further, a Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) was completed to measure parental satisfaction with their role and involvement during the assessment. The second study involved twenty interventionists from two early intervention programs. Subjects reviewed a 10-minute informative video about the ABA and BDI along with corresponding assessment reports. Interventionists completed the CTF and an Intervention Linkage Checklist (ILC) to determine test functionality and the utility of the information for intervention designs. This study found that the ABA was far superior to the BDI in regards to measuring functional skills, parental satisfaction, and for providing pertinent assessment information for intervention planning.

Macy, M., Bricker, D., & Squires, J. (2005). Validity and reliability of a curriculum-based assessment approach to determine eligibility for part C services. Journal of Early Intervention, 28(1), 1-16.

This study examined the functional usage of a curriculum-based assessment in determining children's authentic capabilities and the extent to which the assessment can link outcomes to programming and intervention. Sixty-eight typically and atypically developing toddlers were included as subjects in this study. Subjects were given traditional standardized assessments and curriculum-based assessments. The results indicate that the alternative assessment has the potential to effectively determine eligibility for early intervention services and also for providing a more comprehensive perspective of the child's functional abilities.

Noh, J. (2005). Examining the psychometric properties of the second edition of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System for Three to Six Years: AEPS Test 2nd Edition (3-6). Unpublished dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

The intent of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the cognitive and social domains of the second edition of the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS) for children three to six years of age. Sixty-five children between the ages of three and five years old were chosen as participants. 34 children were typically developing while 31 children were atypically developing. The second edition of the AEPS was used to assess children in their natural environment; specifically examining the extent to which the test scores were influenced by children's age and disability status. The study also explored the relationship between domain scores and items in the domains with the results indicating that there is a strong relationship between these components. Further, the study concluded that the test is sensitive to children's age differences and differences between children that are typically and atypically developing. The second edition of the AEPS test was found to have satisfactory interrater reliability agreement in both the cognitive and social domains; therefore validating the stability of the assessment tool.

Notari, A., & Bricker, D. (1990). The utility of a curriculum-based assessment instrument in the development of individualized education plans for infants and young children. Journal of Early Intervention,14 (2), 117-132.

This study examined the effectiveness of the Evaluation and Programming System: Assessment Level I (EPS-I) when used to create individualized educational goals. A total of 850 goals and objectives written by 48 different interventionists were compared with those written using the EPS-I and other assessment tools. Further, this study examined formal training as opposed to no training on interventionists use of the EPS-I. The results of this study suggest that the EPS-I is a functional tool to assist in creating both long term and short term objectives for infants and young children.

Notari, A., & Drinkwater, S. (1991). Best practice for writing child outcomes: An evaluation of two methods. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,11(3), 92-106.

The purpose of this study was to compare the methods used in two birth-to-3 classrooms when creating an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) for a child. One classroom used the EPS-I to create long range goals and short-term objective, while the other classroom used a computerized list created by staff based on their experiences. The information gained was used to look at the quality of the goals and objectives written, relationship of long range goals and short-term objectives, and the implications for future best practices.

Pretti-Frontczak, K., & Bricker, D. (2000). Enhancing the quality of Individualized Education Plan (IEP) goals and objectives. Journal of Early Intervention, 23(2), 92-105.

This paper discusses the importance of high-quality IEP goals and objectives to supplement key program components such as assessment, intervention, and evaluation. Past research has identified that IEP goals and objectives are often poorly written with minimal emphasis placed on the individualization of special education programming. This study used the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS) to train early childhood special educators on writing quality IEP goals and objectives for children aged three to six. Results indicated that the quality of IEP goals and objectives were enhanced as a result of the AEPS test and IEP goal writing training.

Sher, N. (2000). Activity-based Assessment: Facilitating Curriculum Linkage between Eligibility Evaluation and Intervention. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

This study investigated interrater reliability and construct validity across six developmental domains for the Activity Based Assessment (ABA) for young children with disabilities. Twenty preschool aged children were included as participants in this study; ten were serviced in early childhood special education and ten were typically developing. Two observers assessed the children during a 1 ½ -2 hour long session. The results of this study found that high reliability exists for five of the developmental domains while the communication domain has moderate interrater reliability. The observers were able to specify differences between typical and atypical development in the gross motor, cognitive, and social domains as a result of the ABA .

Slentz, K. (1986). Evaluating the instructional needs of young children with handicaps: Psychometric adequacy of the Evaluation and Programming System-Assessment Level II. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(11), 4072A.

This study examined interobserver reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity for the Evaluation and Programming System: Assessment Level II (EPS-II) for young children ages three to six. The EPS-II was used to assess fifty-three children while a smaller study sample of eighteen children was conducted to examine test-retest reliability and concurrent validity. Two observers scored all subjects to generate data for the multiple components being researched in this study. The results indicated that the EPS-II is a valid instrument and is reliable for determining useful information to enhance instruction for children in early intervention programs.

Straka, E. (1994). Assessment of Young Children for Communication Delays. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

This study examined the utility of the Communication Symbolic and Behavior Scales (CSBS) and the Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System for Infants and Young Children Volume I: Measurement for Birth to Three Years (AEPS). Developers claim that both are useful for intervention planning for children. Eighteen children, not exceeding the chronological age of 28 months and identified as at-risk or having a communication delay, were assessed using the CSBS and the AEPS. Four communication specialists used the information to create goals and objectives. The quality of these goals and objectives were rated on functionality, generality, ease of integration within the instructional content, measurability, and hierarchical relation between long range goal and short term objectives. Results indicated that the CSBS and AEPS shared common characteristics among four dimensions while the fifth dimension of the CSBS was reported as complex in comparison to the AEPS. The CSBS and AEPS were found to be appropriate for creating functional goals and objectives for young children, although the AEPS was found to be most valuable with respect to long and short term objectives.